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Useful information for be

Feed the bees
Like other living organizations, honey bees need water, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals and various salts to achieve nutritional balance in their life cycle. The bees are able to achieve this balance naturally, even if human intervention does not occur by intensifying bee-keeping in one location and imbalances in the ecological balance caused by extinction. Wild plants and farmers’ reliance on monoculture of certain varieties of crops, and the migration of bees to different sites, and above all, the excessive collection of honey, pollen and bee stress through the production of products in an unbalanced manner with Al Ouz for food elements, which is the result of various beekeeping activities. Therefore, this section will focus on the basics of balancing the food in the hive.
Drinking water
Bees obtain their water needs directly through visits to water sources such as springs, water basins, agricultural ponds and other water complexes, water used in irrigation, water pools under trees and droplets of dew on plants or streams of water that the beekeeper put in the disinfected as bees get part of their needs Water is in indirect ways through the nectar and bees need water for many reasons, including honey alleviation especially the crystallized and there is research emphasizes the need for bees to water to be able to eat honey and may store bees limited amounts of water in some of the six eyes did not In summer, especially in hot areas, bees collect water and spread it into the cell to form air currents through their wings, allowing hot air to pass over the water droplets, leading to water evaporation and temperature decline. Some studies indicate that bees in the cell have ten frames You need more than two liters of water a day in high-temperature days to cool the cell and you may need about half a liter in springtime during brood breeding. However, this requirement decreases with the rise of nectar, where nectar provides a portion of the water needs of the bees.
When water is supplied in the dumpster, it is best to leave an unfiltered water faucet over a pot containing wood and polystyrene that allows the bees to stand on it, drink water or a long wooden board with a slow tap on it. The bees stand on its edges and there are many shapes suitable for bees Such as those used in raising poultry or pottery jar to filter water, etc. But any form of drinking must be taken into account that the source of water clean and drink clean and clean it whenever needed. Rain water and springs are considered the most suitable water to be provided to bees. It is necessary to take into account the availability of the water source and continuously as the bees will search for alternatives as soon as the water enters the drink and not necessarily that the bees return to the same drink in case of re-provision of water to it.
Carbohydrates
Carbohydrates are the main source of energy in bees. In normal cases bees get them from the nectar of flowers, which is the nectar that is converted into honey. There are also other sources that can be frequented by bees to access the sources of carbohydrates such as honey, honey, fruits and fruits that contain sugars It occurs when bees visit the fruit of grapes after being punctured by wasps and birds in addition to the available sources of non-traditional result of human activities from the vicinity of residential and industrial areas, but honey definition is the nectar converted by bees and is considered a carbohydrate food The balanced balance of the bees, where it contains mostly marginal rates of sugar sucrose, while sugar fructose and glucose glucose are the highest ratio of sugars and known as unilateral sugars.
It is caused by the conversion of sugar duo-sucrose by the enzyme invertase produced by bees on nectar.
In the case of lack of stock of honey in the cells become bees threatened as this leads to the first to start bees from the disposal of larvae and eggs to reduce the burden on food stocks and then move to stop the development of the cell and may end the death of the cell in full in the cold or at best to Migration of bees to the cell in warm weather conditions.
In order to reduce the shortage of carbohydrates food, the beekeeper must provide safe alternatives to bees to feed on them. Although honey is the most suitable food to be offered to bees, providing honey to bees in nutrition carries two things. The first is the high cost of providing alternative honey to feed the bees. Sources of honey that may be used by beekeepers in feeding operations may be contaminated with serious pathogens such as American rotting brood. In many countries of the world, there are alternatives to carrot nutrition for bees that are often not available in some areas in normal conditions. B - sugar food Sucrose is considered to provide food to prevent hunger and to provide food stocks carbohydrate for the winter and maintain the activity of bees and breeding times of scarcity of pastures, especially with the high temperatures in the summer and clinical nutrition at the beginning of the spring and the use of nutrition in support of parcels and production of queens of the most important reasons The drive to provide carbohydrates nutrition for bees and signs of hunger are prominent that can be seen sometimes throwing bees to larvae and virgins outside the cell and expelled to males and not allow it to return to the cell easily by lifting them from the back slightly allowing the weight of the cell is less hungry and in the case of advanced hunger, the death of some bees in the eyes of the six and the head of the bee directed to the bottom of the six-eye and the back of her belly to the outside.
The most important ways to provide carbohydrates nutrition
Nutrition on honey stock:
As explained above, honey can be used to feed bees, but there is a lot of risk in the transmission of diseases and can be scraped the six eye eyes of honey tablets in the same cells at the end of the winter and the beginning of the spring. This procedure makes it easier for bees to access honey, And is also suitable as it helps bees in the payment of bees to consume the stock of honey caused by nutrition and stimulates in the beginning of spring to reproduce and the process of abrasion by scraping fork . Used in preparing the frames to sort this honey and can be used some tires are stored specifically for this which may be collected by the beekeeper at the end of the fall of cells that have a surplus of honey or may be returned to beekeepers by moving the frame of a strong cell and healthy to another hungry cell This method helps bees to more nutrition on sugar solutions where the bees do not result in conversion Binary sugars to mono prior to taking into account that honey did not come from diseased cells to prevent transmission of infection.
Nutrition on diabetic solution:
Sugar is provided with different concentrations and combinations. There are also many types of foods that can be used to feed the bees such as the surface food, the so-called topical, the internal food, the so-called bourgeoisie and the so-called slow food formula. The nutrition is available for the bees slowly and others went to fill the liquid feed in plastic bags with holes, but all of them and any form, size, size and method of submission is different, but all share the same content and objectives The solution consists of diabetic NAT in addition to the main improvements properties of the sugar solution used the following materials for the preparation of the sugar solution.
Water and sugar:
There are a number of conditions that must be met in the water used in the preparation of sugar solutions. Only high-quality water should be used as spring and rain water. The chlorinated household water may be used if it is well ventilated before dissolving the diabetic solution and the distilled water is not used in preparing the feed.
Boiling water is necessary to facilitate the melting of sugar in water, especially when the preparation of high concentrations on the delivery of water to the boiling point and then stop the source of heat and then increase the water to prevent the sugar granules contact the bottom of the vessels used in boiling and boiling water plays an important role in reducing the spread of many pathogens such as Nuzima and some fungi and bacteria that infect bees in addition to its contribution to reduce the presence of many types of bacteria, such as bacteria that cause the pigmentation of sugary solutions and eliminates the boiling water temporary, which improves the properties of water and if the water Some studies suggest that soft water is better than difficult in feeding bees, but additional studies are needed to determine the impact of hard water on water . Bees.
Some sugars can also be used in nutrition, but they are not available to all beekeepers in the normal situation. Therefore, the light should be used here on the use of food. Food sugar should be sucrose used in nutrition of high quality sugar and free of impurities. In some cases, white sugar is used for domestic use only. It is recommended that you refrain from using any sugar from the residues of the reservoirs, which may contain impurities and contaminants that affect the health of the bees.
It is often difficult for beekeepers to calculate the final amount of the sugar solution that will be obtained when dissolving the amount of sugar in water and to give examples of the amounts resulting from melting sugar in water.
The above results may be slightly affected by the quality of sugar, water temperature, sugar moisture before dissolving and other factors, especially from the preparation of large amounts of feed, so these ratios are considered indicative.
In order to improve the properties of nutrition can be introduced many of the wad to sugary nutrition and it is advisable not to mix these materials at random and may be followed for use, including:
Lemonade:
Honey is a substance with a pH number of about 4 and the number variants with the source of the nectar and a number of other factors. To make the pH of the sugary feeding close to the pH of the honey, the lemon juice can be added to the diabetic solution after its preparation. The amount of lemon juice that should be increased to the diabetic solution 15 ml or the equivalent of one tablespoon per liter of diabetic solution. It is recommended to purchase a pH measurement device to reduce the pH as much as possible to approximate the rate in honey.
the salt:
There is a limited amount of salt to feed, where a quarter to half of the salt gram is increased per liter of feed. This quantity varies depending on the quality of the water and its source. Therefore, the minimum value can be increased by increasing the amount of salt per 4 liters of sugar solution. It is also increased after the solution is completed The salt is not used in the manufacture of pickles, and it is preferable not to add salt to the autumn and winter nutrition and put the salt in the spring and summer nutrition, where the addition of salt Biting needs of bee salts.
Drenched medicinal and aromatic plants:
It is possible to introduce some plants and aromatic plants such as thyme, thyme, lavender and others. There are no strict amounts in the process of the introduction of these medicinal and aromatic plants, but the basis point when preparing them are prepared separately and a few hours before the preparation of sugary nutrition where the water is prepared soaked well in a jug or a separate container Remove from the fire after arrival boiling point and then soak a medicinal plant and aromatic in it for a few hours and then filtered and increased to the solution of diabetes after the arrival of room temperature.
Aromatic oils:
There are many essential oils that can be added to the nutrition, adding flavor to become attractive to the bees and rely on the countries of Eastern Europe to introduce these oils in nutrition, especially autumn for health reasons and to stimulate the bees to consume nutrition and storage quickly before the winter and these oils also provided successful in Stimulate bees to consume more quickly. Among these oils, eucalyptus oil, kerosene, thyme oil and menthol oil, and to improve the level of the spread of these oils in the diabetic solution, two drops per liter of sugar solution are loaded on a small amount of sugar Sugar is then dissolved in the diabetic solution.
Natural Thymol Crystals:
Many scientific references point to the effectiveness of increasing the thymol crystals in nutrition to prevent the fermentation of the diabetic solution and to reduce the spread of diseases such as Noseima and some other pathogens and to prevent the fermentation and dyeing of the diabetic solution in the case of non-consumption of bees directly and since thymol crystals do not dissolve in water of the thymol crystals by adding them to five parts of methyl medicinal alcohol, for example adding 10 grams of natural thymol in 50 ml of medical alcohol. This is sufficient to increase to 100 liters, feeding at a rate of half a milliliter of dissolved thymol per liter. Care must be taken to wear gloves. V When working with thymol, where it is possible to hurt your hands and eyes in case of contact with her.
Propolis:
Propolis is characterized by attractive properties of bees and stimulates the consumption of nutrition and has properties that delay the fermentation of sugary nutrition and reduce the growth of bacteria and fungi in nutrition. To achieve these goals, 1 ml of dissolved alcohol solution is dissolved per liter of nutrition and added after completion of nutrition preparation.
Acetic acid vinegar:
Acetic acid works to reduce the rate of (PH) in the solution of diabetes, which is very important as noted earlier and contains natural apple vinegar, especially on the many vitamins and natural elements that honeybees in the case of increased to nutrition, including beta carotene, calcium, phosphorus, potassium, sodium, magnesium and iron And others, which in turn enhance the nutritional value of the nutrition provided to the bees and vinegar generally effective in preventing the fermentation of sugary nutrition and supports the ability of bees to convert the sugars to a single mono, which facilitates the conversion of the solution and store the secretory in the six eyes and seal, Autumn in preparation for winter.
3 ml of natural cider vinegar with a concentration of 5-6% and filtered from impurities per liter of glycerol solution is increased by the concentration of sugar to water as follows (sugar to water 1: 1 natural apple vinegar 3 ml)
In order to facilitate the measure of the quantities of vinegar that should be increased to ready-made nutrition, especially in small quantities, it is recommended that beekeepers buy a medical syringe with a capacity of about 20 ml.
Solid sugary nutrition:
To provide an emergency stock in the winter for the bee community, especially those where bees spend winter in the high and cold areas and are not migrated to the Jordan Valley can readily on the provision of about a kilogram * a kilogram of solid sugary * hard candied * prepared in advance.
This nutrition consists of: {soft sugar powder - 5 kg} {water - 1 liter} {natural apple vinegar - 4 ml}.
The water is boiled well and it is advisable to do so in a water bath. When boiling, add the apples to the water, which has reached 110 ° C. The soft sugar powder is gradually added to the water and continues to stir until about 4 kg and a half of the sugar powder In the water and continue stirring and boiling for 10 minutes Raise the container and cooled in a water bath can speed up the cooling process by adding more sugar powder to the pickle and then pour the ingredients in the molds and put wax paper at the bottom of the molds and fumigated with powdered sugar and leave the ingredients until cool and put this nutrition Above In order to ensure that the cell can be tightly closed after feeding, the upper food is turned upside down so that the cane is inside the inverted feed and is easily accessible by the bees directly. The water may be replaced with glucose glucose, provided that all the steps are done in a water bath only.
Sugary nutrition:
Which is prepared to feed the queens in the cages for transport. It is also used to provide additional food stock for the pollination levels, especially during the period of the hatching and fertilization of the queen. To prepare the coli, a liter of glucose glucose (used for medicinal purposes) is fed about 3 kg of fine sugar powder, in a pot in a water bath and gradually raise the temperature of the sugar powder gradually increase with continuous stirring up to the required strength and can be introduced apple vinegar in the dough from the beginning and adopt the same proportions in the hard paste mentioned above.
The most important methods of protein nutrition:
It is difficult to achieve a protein balance alternative to pollen because the pollen in the composition of the integrated diet of bees and no matter how accurate equations and the quality of alternatives, it will not reach the level of nutrition to the pollen.
Here are some suggestions for providing protein food for bees in times of scarcity:
Nutrition on pollen stock:
It is difficult to store the tires of pollen outside the cell where it warns of the dangers of being targeted by mites, ants or other insects and difficult to protect them from pollution, fermentation and rot, which makes them unsuitable for consumption by bees and amateur hoppers who have a limited number of cells can be stored in the freezer until And can be placed in the freezer for 36 hours and then removed and arranged vertically inside the barrel can be tightly tightly and is completely buried with sugar powder and when the case of lack of pollen in the past or in the stock of the cell is extracted pollen from the freezer and waiting Until the temperature of the air is absorbed and then fed into the hungry cells. If the pollen frames are stored by the sugar powder in a barrel and extracted according to need, and the less the amount of powdered sugar is increased and when used, the sugar powder can be taken from the tires to be fed into the cells that need it. These methods are softer for very small complexes.
Beekeepers can also transport tires from pollen from cells that have plenty of pollen to those they need, keeping in mind that the donor cell is free from disease and pests.
Pollen nutrition:
The bees can be fed on the pollen collected in the season from the dissolved, taking into account not to use pollen imported or unknown source as it should be the source of pollen for cells free of diseases, especially American brood and if the beekeepers want to use pollen Of other or imported beekeepers must ensure that they have been sterilized with gamma rays, which is difficult for beekeepers to confirm.
Another problem with the use of pollen in bee nutrition is its high price and market value. Only high-quality pollen should be used in nutrition.
One of the methods followed by amateurs is that the pollen is grouped by the traps at the time of availability and is frozen by the freezer or dried. In times of shortage, it is scattered in the six eyes where a frame is taken out of the tires and a spray of light sugar solution is spread over the frame by sprayer and then Spread the pollen in it and shake the frame so that the beads enter the inside of the hexagonal eyes.

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Sorry, too long, didn’t read :frowning:

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Like wise, as with @JeffH I found it way too long, maybe get it published as a book.

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Hi @Hadi_Berkouk, Are you suggesting that beekeepers put chemicals in the water for the bees?

Can you please provide peer-reviewed sources to back these claims?