Depends on the nectar flow and how good your queen is. It will also depend on how much brood was in your nucleus. A standard deep Langstroth frame has around 3,500 cells per side. If the queen lays in the center portion of that, that might be 2,000 bees per side. A queen can easily lay 2,000 eggs per day, if the colony has enough nurse bee, plus honey and pollen to feed the brood. So your colony can do remarkable things in just a couple of weeks.
When I install a new nucleus, I usually leave them for 2 weeks before the first inspection, to give them a chance to settle in without interference. If the nectar flow is poor, I would feed them for the first few weeks, and I might check the feeder, but I don’t usually inspect the whole box. I try not to leave them longer than that, because if they are building crazy comb, I want to intervene before it gets too destructive to correct it.