Hi there and welcome!
The answer to your question is.... it depends. If a passing swarm finds your new hive, they might decide to like it and stay, but they might not. Bees from the hive next door will stay with their queen and her brood, unless she decides to swarm. So the only ways to populate your new hive are:
1. Buy new bees - a package or a nucleus, both with a queen.
2. Split your existing hive if it is strong, especially if it looks likely to swarm (queens cells being made and populated)
3. Catch a swarm locally, and hope it has a queen in it - most do, but not all, and even if they do, sometimes the queen gets left behind during the capture.
Anyhow, it seems like you have a lot to learn. Read as much as you can on this forum, join a local beekeeping club and get some books about beekeeping and bee biology.